Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Odontologia


The Strictu Sensu Graduate Program in Dentistry of the Paulista University, Master's and Doctorate level, in line with the mission of the Paulista University, aims to train professors for higher education, promote the training of highly qualified researchers for the labor market, academy, and third sector, who act with ethics and social responsibility.


The program aims to train graduates with the following characteristics:

Master's level: master's degree, teaching and research competence, ability to work at the academy in undergraduate and/or professional improvement courses, and also apply the results of their research on behalf of society.

PhD level: domain of the area, profile of professor-researcher with critical capacity and ability to lead and delineate quality research, write scientific articles, guide students of Scientific Initiation, in addition to applying the knowledge acquired on behalf of improving the health of the population.

The Strictu Sensu Graduate Program in Dentistry of the Paulista University (PPGO) began its activities in 1992, at master's level and was accredited by CAPES on 07/30/1998.
Since its inception, the Program has titled 261 masters and 16 doctors. Most of them are inserted in the labor market and act as professionals of public agencies, coordinator of improvement course and/ or Lato Sensu graduate in class associations  or private universities and/or, as professors at the Institution itself or in other universities.
Since 2010, faced with the need for adaptation and updating, a series of steps have been taken aiming at to the growth and consolidation of the Program and consequent increase in meeting the market demands. As a consequence of this restructuring, there has been a significant advance of all the cases, which yielded the concept four (4) and, in 2015, in the opening of the doctoral level, with graduates from 2018.
The changes implemented are adequacy of the concentration area and the curricular structure, with the objective of improving the coherence between the area of concentration, lines, research projects and disciplines. These requirements have been constantly reviewed and, when necessary, re-shaped to offer comprehensive, multidimensional student training and in line with Institutional Planning.
 Social inclusion, in the various modalities, has been an expanding item and the internationalization of the Program has grown and has been consolidated with international partnerships, professor and student mobility, participation of external visitors and development of research projects with international funding.

The faculty actively participates in the preparation of the Program’s STRATEGIC PLANNING, focusing on national and international issues which are imposed in an ongoing flow.

The methodologies implemented to carry out the SELF-ASSESSMENT process have directed decision-making and self-management of the Program, providing elements for the discussion of educational and structural propositions that consolidate the University as a center of excellence in the training of professionals.

MISSION: prepare and qualify, at a level of excellence, professionals who meet the demand of society and the country who contribute to research, teaching and services, in line with principles of ethics, social responsibility, associated with UNIP's mission, which is to promote teaching, research and extension.

ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES: ethics, innovation, sustainability, environmental responsibility, national and international cooperation, transparency and solidarity.



Knowledge area

  • Biomaterials
  • Restorative Dentistry
  • Implantology
  • Laser
  • Orthodontics
  • Special Needs Patients
  • Periodontology
  • Prosthodontics
  • Public Health

Area of Study

Dental Clinic

The infrastructure, especially with regard to research laboratorial equipment, is constantly updated and adapted to the needs of the researchers, with institutional support and with funds obtained from development agencies.

The Program has good laboratory infrastructure to supply the area of study. The University makes laboratories and centres available to the Stricto Sensu Post-Graduation Program in Dentistry that are shared with other Post-Graduation Programs in the Health field.


  1. Research Laboratory: Over the past few years, the following equipment items have been added to the inventory: 2018: Mini-centrifugal machine Model: K14-060- Kasvi (R$1,099.00 - FAPESP 2016/12758-3); Boiling water bath Model: 201010 -Thoth Equipamentos (R$ 1,500.00 – Heritage: 01192230). Previous inventory: 1. Nanodrop lite – Spectrophotometer – Thermo Fisher Scientific (R$ 17,000.00 – FAPESP - 2013); 2. Mini-centrifugal machine MCA (R$1,100.00 – FAPESP 2013); 3. Digital boiling water bath (R$ 1,600.00 – FAPESP – 2013); 4. Freezer (R$ 1,600.00 – FAPESP – 2014); 5. Stereo-microscope – C-os – Nikon Instruments Inc. (R$ 7,000.00 – FAPESP - 2014); 6. Precision Scale (R$ 2,000.00 – FAPESP – 2014); 7. Electrophoresis tank (R$ 1,465.00 – FAPESP – 2014); 8. Mini-centrifugal machine (R$ 840.00 – FAPESP – 2014); 9. Vortex (2 X R$ 637.00 – FAPESP -2014); 10. Microwave oven (R$ 560.00 – FAPESP – 2014); 11. Laminar Vertical Flow Cabinet - MINI-V – Telstar (R$ 13,000.00 – 2015 - CNPq); 12. Real-Time PCR System - Light Cycler 96 – Roch (R$ 90,000.00 – FAPESP - 2015); 13. Magnetic Stirrer with heating (R$ 1,700.00 – CNPq – 2015); 14. Micro-homogenizer (R$ 2,850.00 – FAPESP – 2016); 15. Mini plate Spinner (R$ 3,350.00 – FAPESP – 2016); 16. Centrifugal Machine MCA (2 units) - 1-14K – Sigma (R$ 63,500.00 – FAPESP - 2016); Micro-pipettes (R$ 12,690.00 - FAPESP – 2013, 2014 Mini-centrifugal Machine 6400 RPM Dual Voltage (R$ 1,099.00 - FAPESP: 2016/12758-3)
    Other items added to the inventory between 2010 and 2012: 1. Scanning Electronic Microscope - Jsm-6510 MCA – JEOL; Metallizer - Mca desk v – JEOL; Carbon Vaporizer - Desk yarn - JEOL (R$ 287,419.24 – UNIP allowance - 2011); 2. Micro-durometer - FM-700 - Future-tech (R$ 140,000.00 – FAPESP-2010); 3. Universal Assays Machine MCA - KE. 2000 MP – KRATOS (R$ 38,400.00 – UNIP - 2011); 4. Luminex – MAGPIX – Millipore (R$ 112,500.00 – FAPESP - 2011); Universal Cutting Machine Isomet 1000 – 112180 – Buehler (R$ 24,508.00 – UNIP - 2010); 6. Exhaustion shrine (R$ 1,900.00 – UNIP allowance -2010); 7. 10. Microplate Reader - Tp- reader fse – Thermo-plate (R$ 19,500.00 – FAPESP 2011); 8. Extensometer – R$ 35,000.00 - FAPESP – 2012; 9. Analytical scale (A6200 – Gehaka); 10. Centrifugal machine (80-2b – 5mL – Centribio); 11. Boiling water bath for tubes (60 tubes – Labtec); 12. Exhaustion shrine (Permutation); 13. Electronic scale (BK3000 – Gehaka); 14. Magnetic stirrer (78HW-I – Biomixer); 15. vortex stirrer (QL-901 – Biomixer); 16. ultrasonic bath; 17. Sample inlayer (Maxipress – Solotest); 18. Electric cutting machine (Maxicut – Solotest); 19. Polishing machine (Maximiller – Solotest); 20. Bacteriological and drying greenhouses (81 and 150L – Fanem); 21. Digital pachymeter; 22. Deionizer; 23. pH meter; 24. Semi-automatic pipettors; 25. Elisa reader; 26. Surtonic rugosimeter 25.
  2. Cellular and Molecular Biology Lab, with an area of nearly 200 m², divided into three sub-areas: Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, and Infectious Agents. In addition to the consumable material, workbenches, and other basic facilities, the lab also offers the following items: MAGpix (Luminex Corporation); tube stirrer, autoclaves (Phoenix); analytical scale (Gehaka); class II cabinet - A1 for microorganism handling (Pachane); digital camera for gel Fotodoc (SP 500-UZ - Olympus); centrifugal machine Excelsa Baby I (Fanem); cooled centrifugal machine (5804R – Eppendorf); distiller TE2755 (Tecnal); three bacteriological greenhouses (two 502- Fanem and one AL510 – American Lab); two sterilization greenhouses (AL500 – American Lab); two sources for electrophoresis (EPS301 – Amersham Biosciences); four vertical freezers (240 Brastemp); five refrigerators (411L – DF48 – Electrolux); shrine with LCD Display for Gel documentation (Feldman Wild Leitz); CO² incubator (TE399- Tecnal); ice-making machine (EGE160-Everest); three orbital stirrer tables (TE141 – Technal); micro-centrifugal machine (MiniSpin Plus 5453 – Eppendorf); Trinocular microscope (PrimoStar – Zeiss); Phase Contrast and Fluorescence microscope (Axiovert 40C – Zeiss); two horizontal mini-tanks for Electrophoresis (HE33-Amersham Biosciences); microwave ovens (NHS56BH – Panasonic); micro-pipettes (FAPESP 06/61171-3), being five of 0.5-10µL (Finnipipette – Lab systems, epResearch 10 – Eppendorf, Microman M10 – Gilson), four from 10 to 100 µL (epResearch 100 – Eppendorf and epResearch 2100 – Eppendorf), four from 100 to 1000 µL (epResearch 1000 – Eppendorf and epResearch 2100 – Eppendorf), two of 2-20 µL (Pipetman P200 – Gilson), two from 30 to 200 µL (Pipetman P200 – Gilson), two of 250 µL (Pipetman F250 – Gilson), two of 1000 µL (Pipetman F1000 – Gilson), one of 10-50 µL (3002 – Oxford), one from 200 to 1000 µL (3004 – Oxford); multichannel micropipette (8 5-500 µL channels – Boeco); Trans-illuminator Photo/UV 21 (3-3025 – Fotodyne), Reverse Osmosis and Mili-Q (Direct Q3 – Millipore), micro-processed digital workbench pH meter (PG1800 – Gehaka); ( Pipet-Aid) (Midi Plus BioHit - FAPESP 06/54343-2); Fixed Angle Rotor (30 tubes of 1,5-2 mL and 6 tubes of 85mL F45-30-11 – Eppendorf); Gel Analysis System (GelQuant v2.7 – Bio-Imaging Systems); two Thermo-cyclers (Mastercycler and Mastercycler Gradient – Eppendorf).
  3. Animal Facility and Experiment Lab: infrastructure which allows meeting all research demands involving animals.
  4. UNIP’s Herbarium and Botanical Lab which receive plant samples from the Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica) and from the Amazon Rainforest and perform taxonomical identification of each specimen, supervised by the herbarium curator. UNIP Herbarium is registered in the Index Herbariorum, an important international entity which regulates the area’s activities.
  5. Lab for Active Principle Extraction from plants from the Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica) and from the Amazon Rainforest, with therapeutic properties for both in vitro and in vivo studies. The lab is equipped with Walk-in-type shrines, a Thomas-branded cutting mill, 1 Fanem-branded greenhouse with air circulation, 2 analytical scales branded Ohaus and Mettler, 1 Marte-branded electronic scale, 1 Milli-Q system for water purification (Millipore), 5 rotation-evaporators (Buchii), 1 vacuum pump (Edwards), 1 ultrasonic bath, 1 manifold sample drying, 1 chiller coupled to rotation-evaporators (Neslab), 1 cold chamber – 20°C, 1 freezer -70°C (Revco), 2 tray lyophylizers (Virtis and Labconco).
  6. Microbiology Lab for the identification of active vegetable extracts against bacteria of importance for humans and animals. The lab has 2 greenhouses of adjustable temperature (Fanem and De Leo); 1 laminar flow chamber (Veco); 1 optical microscope (Zeiss); Micro-collection of microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia; 6 micropipettes of various volumes; multichannel (Mettler and Eppendorf); 1 automatic pipettor (Eppendorf); 2 household refrigerators (Electrolux); 1 microwave oven (General Electric); 3 dissectioners, anaerobiosis systems; 1 turbidimeter; pH meter; consumption material, and lab glassware.
  7. Phytochemistry Lab for fractionizing and purification of vegetable-originated extracts. The lab has: 1 plaque preparer, 1 spectrum-photometer UV-VIS (Femto) coupled to a computer, glass chromatographic columns of various dimensions, specific reagents, 2 shrines, silica for chromatoplaques and for column, Sephadex LH20, silica C-18 for column, HPLC syringes (Phenomenex), lab glassware, solvents, reagents, 3 magnetic stirrers with heating, UV 254 and 366 nm picture development lamp, hair dryer, capillaries; 1 liquid, high-efficiency, analytical chromatograph (Agilent), 1 gas chromatograph (Agilent).
  8. The Antitumor Screening Lab for cytotoxicity assays, extracts identification concerning human tumor growth inhibition, in vitro, international standard. The Antitumor Screening Lab items, as well as consumption materials, were financed by FAPESP (US$ 104,525.97). The Lab has: 1 centrifugal machine (Eppendorf), 1 refrigerator (Electrolux), 1 freezer (Electrolux), 1 96-pitted micro-plaque reader (Biotech), 1 96-pitted micro-plaque washer (Biotech), 1 automatic pipettor (Eppendorf), 2 multi-channel micropipettes (Biohit ) and assorted pipettes (Eppendorf), 1 liquid Nitrogen cylinder, 1 optical microscope (Zeiss), 1 inverted microscope (Zeiss), 1 double incubator (Forma), 1 laminar flow chamber BL-2 (Forma), pH meter, 1 stirrer for micro-plaques, and assorted consumption material.
  9. The Graduation Dental Clinic is intended for clinical research and patient handling with the purpose of preparing study materials. The clinic consists of 20 complete dental exam rooms, as well as implant-related devices, clinical microscope, X-ray, view boxes, and the entire basic infrastructure required for its functions.
  10. The Centre of Mouth Cancer Prevention and Detection is equipped with a complete dental exam room, video recording equipment, making it possible to record interventions and to broadcast the content to the auditorium or to classrooms. In this Centre, undergraduates and graduates work with the guidance and supervision of professors from the Program.
  11. The Dental Laser Centre has a high-power laser Nd: YAG device (FAPESP 95/05322-6) and four low-power devices (AsGaAl Diode; LED-associated Diode).
  12. The Surgical Centre has two procedure rooms, cloakroom for patients and professionals, expurgation and antisepsis rooms, and a nitrous oxide sedation equipment.
  13. A Sterilization Centre with autoclaves and greenhouses.
  14. The CEAPE – Centre of Studies and Service to Special Patients, with dental equipment items for the handling of patients with special needs and HIV-positive patients.
  15. Rooms for theoretical classes and seminars: UNIP has rooms available – at both clinics building and post-graduation – for theoretical classes, with microcomputers, air conditioning, multimedia projectors, DVD players, screens, tables, and chairs.
  16. Study Room: the Program has a room available for meetings and studying, with tables, chairs, microcomputers, air conditioning, wireless high-speed internet, a scanner, and a printer.
  17. Faculty Room: the professors have a room for meetings and student supervision with tables, chairs, air conditioning, microcomputers with wireless high-speed internet access, a scanner, and a printer.
  18. Rooms for Thesis Pre-Approval and Presentation: two rooms are made available with multimedia projectors, microcomputers, air conditioning, screens, padded chairs, and a five-seat table for the Examining Board.
  19. Post-Graduation Secretary to support the Program’s students and faculty.
  20. Auditoriums: at the Post-Graduation building, there are three auditoriums that can accommodate 50, 150, and 600 people, respectively, with full infrastructure for courses and events.

IT Resources

The IT Lab, the student rooms, and the faculty room are equipped with computers interconnected to UNIP's intranet, with wireless high-speed internet, e-mail access, and library network, allowing access to the University's entire bibliographical collection.
UNIP has a lab with 20 microcomputers, 01 printer, and a technician that is available for the graduate students.
All computers have state-of-the-art software able to carry out statistical analyses, preparing teaching material, data bases, and texts.


UNIP's libraries organization serves to meet the needs of the courses and other activities of the University, providing teaching and research support. The CAPES Journals Portal is available to the whole academic community.. Students and professors can refer to books, monographs, theses, videos, CD-ROMs, and journals through a totally revolutionary system, as the libraries are already structured so as to support teaching and research, within a multi-campus organization. The sectorial libraries (one at each campus) are controlled by a central unit via. All institutional libraries are interconnected online via internet, so that more simultaneous users may have access to the services and resources 24x7, and respecting the collections decentralization, necessary due to the different campi locations.

For user access, the university has national and international data bases, as well as other informatics resources to expedite the bibliographical survey and changeover services. In order to keep a qualitative and quantitatively well-dimensioned collection, UNIP's libraries have massively invested in the purchasing of books, journals, multimedia material, etc. We currently have 1,170,943 books of various titles.

The Central Library's collection is available for users, and allows borrowing and local consultation, with 24x7 on-line access for the services of bibliographical material consultation, borrowing renewal, and reservations.

Online Data Database: https://www.unip.br/servicos/biblioteca/base_dados.aspx.
Restricted to UNIP's university community.

  1. Multidisciplinary
    EBSCO Discovery Service – EDS
    EDS is a research and discovery tool that aggregates a great part of the electronic information sources accessible via UNIP's Portal, such as: databases of scientific articles; e-books; conferences, technical reports etc.
  2. Journals
    It is a journal titles management tool. It provides a simplified way to find complete texts from UNIP's electronic journals, regardless of their location – on publishers' websites, within databases, or even on search portals.


  1. DENTISTRY & ORAL SCIENCES SOURCE: It encompasses all of the Dentistry-related areas, including Public Dental Assistance, Endodontics, Pain and Facial Surgery, Dentistry, Mouth and Maxillofacial Pathologies/Surgeries/Radiology, Orthodontics, Paediatric Dentistry, Periodontics, and Prosthodontics. The database is updated on a weekly basis via EBSCO host.
  2. GALE - ACADEMIC ONEFILE: Collection of journals with complete text and references in the areas of Exact Sciences, Technology, Medical Sciences, Applied Social Sciences, Arts, and Humanities.
  3. SCIENCE DIRECT: Publications by Elsevier and by other scientific publishers are available, and cover the areas of Biological Sciences, Health Sciences, Agrarian Sciences, Exact and Earth Sciences, Engineering, Applied Social Sciences, Human Sciences, and Literature and Arts.
  4. SCIENCEDIRECT - E-Books backlist and books in Portuguese: Books in Portuguese and backlist of e-books by Elsevier of 1995-2008 and of other scientific publishers covering several study areas. Included are monographs, encyclopaedias, and published conference historical records.
  5. SPRINGERLINK: Collection of publications emphasizing the areas of Biological Sciences, Health Sciences, Agrarian Sciences, and Exact and Earth Sciences. Click on the desired title to peruse the booklets and consult abstracts and full articles.
  6. WILEY ONLINE LIBRARY: This collection cover the areas of Biological Sciences, Health Sciences, Agrarian Sciences, Exact and Earth Sciences, Agrarian Sciences, Applied Social Sciences, Human Sciences, and Linguistics, Literature, and Arts.


The following services are offered to the academic community: borrowing, local consultation, borrowing between libraries via courier service, online reservation and renewal, user qualification, monitored visit, COMUT – Bibliographical Commutation Program, and SCAD – Cooperative Service of Access to Documents, guidance and standardization for academic works, research and bibliographic survey, on-line research and printing services, catalogue card preparation (https://www.unip.br/servicos/biblioteca/ficha_catalografica.aspx), bibliographical reference preparation (ABNT and VANCOUVER), available via https://www.unip.br/servicos/biblioteca/guia.aspx

Equipment: Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrometer (FTIR)

Brand: ThermoFischer

Model: IS50

Origin: Foundation for Research Support of the State of São Paulo (FAPESP)

Responsible Researcher: Adriano Fonseca de Lima

Fourrier Transformed Infra-Red Spectrometer is a device used for the characterization of materials and analysis of chemical reactions, both of solid and liquid materials, by obtaining mid- and near-infrared spectra.

Equipment Location
Research Laboratory of the Paulista University - Rua Dr. Bacelar 902.

Equipment Use
To use the device, it is necessary to make an appointment in advance via email: pgodonto@unip .br. It is important to emphasize that the scheduling is subject to the availability of the team responsible for the equipment.

The Program has maintained national and international exchanges, generating technical and bibliographic productions from these partnerships. The scientific output resulting from the exchanges can be observed in the complete papers published, accepted or submitted for publication, which include the names of the partnership participants.

Partnerships and National Exchanges

  1. SÃO PAULO CITY GOVERNMENT: Stricto Sensu Post-Graduation Program in Dentistry, through CEAPE – UNIP (Centre of Studies and Special Patients Services) in partnership with the City’s STD/AIDS Program, provides support to the municipality’s 15 specialized centres (north, south, east, west, and mid-west) for diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic mouth diseases. The population of patients served at the STD/AIDS Program’s reference centres is close to 9,000 users. In addition, patients from several institutions and associations (Support Houses, NGOs, Green Cross, APAE, and others) are also taken to the CEAPE. Researches resulting from this partnership have already been presented at several international conferences in other countries, such as Canada, the USA, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Austria, and studies have also been published in national and international journals. The activities are reported in the Social Insertion section.
  2. UNIFESP – DEPARTMENT OF MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY: this partnership allows full service to oncological patients and the Centre is responsible for the application of educational-preventive methods, as well as diagnosing and – in the event of disease detection – carrying out the needed local procedures and forward the case to UNIFESP for a systemic treatment. Also, explanatory self-examination manuals have been developed by students from the Program, and they are distributed to all patients seeking services at UNIP’s clinics. Professor Dr Luciano Lauria Dib coordinates the Maxillofacial Rehabilitation Centre for UNIFESP Head and Neck Surgery Department. In this centre, outpatient and surgical services are available for patients with oncological facial deformities, where they go through rehabilitation procedures with facial implants and prosthesis. Part of this assistance is carried out during UNIP’s Dentistry Course, with the Post-Graduation’s Facial Rehabilitation Clinic. The discipline of Maxillofacial Rehabilitation of UNIP’s Strictu Sensu Post-Graduation Program in Dentistry (MSc level) is carried out at UNIFESP’s outpatient facility, with UNIP students who join the meetings and the clinical activities. Several publications have come out of this partnership with the co-authorship of Professor Marcio Abrahão, Director of UNIFESP’s Otorhinolaryngology Department. The activities performed at this centre allowed the creation of the “More Identity Institute” (“Instituto Mais Identidade”), a Civil Society Public Interest Organization (OSCIP) devoted to free services to patients who suffer from maxillofacial deformities, which represent a strong social impact. A place where several community preventive and clarifying events will be organized.
  3. SÍRIO-LIBANÊS (HOSPITAL)– EXTRACTION LABORATORY: covenant with the Research and Teaching Institute of Sírio Libanês Hospital (IEP-HSL) for supplementary studies carried out in the area of natural products by UNIP’s extraction Lab. There is a project in progress called "Rio Negro Project", coordinated by researchers Dr Riad Naim Younes, Dr Antonio Drauzio Varella, both from UNIP, and by Dr Luiz Fernando Lima Reis, from IEP-HSL, and counts with on researchers Dr Ivana Barbosa Suffredini, Dr Ingrit Elida Collantes Díaz (Peru), and Dr Mateus Luís Barradas Paciencia, from UNIP. The project is also jointed by IC’s students, master’s candidates, and doctoral candidates. The researchers listed in this group, apart from the ones from IEP-HSL, from UNIP, and other external collaborators, occasionally meet and discuss project-related matters.
  4. RIO GRANDE DO NORTE’S HEALTH SECRETARIAT: in partnership with the Clinic of maxillofacial rehabilitation, Professor Dr. Luciano Lauria Dib travels to Natal (RN), three times a year, to perform surgeries on patients from the Unified Health System (SUS), for fixation of bone-integrated implants on patients having severe facial and maxillary deformities of oncological treatment origins. These implants are used for retention of rehabilitating facial prosthesis. The ongoing project serves patients and provides prosthesis maintenance support. Social Insertion: These activities completely change the State community, as they allow the patients’ social reintegration, delivering conditions for them to resume family coexistence, labour activity, and human dignity recovery.
  5. KIDNEY AND HYPERTENSION HOSPITAL/UNIFESP: UNIP’s Strictu Sensu Post-Graduation Program in Dentistry, through Professor Dr Élcio Magdalena Giovani, jointly with the undergraduate course, through CEAPE (Centre of Studies and service to Special Patients), in partnership with UNIFESP’s Kidney and Hypertension Hospital, provides support to the patients with chronic kidney insufficiency – pre- and post-transplanted - acts in the prevention of the mouth health integrity, prepares them for surgery and avoids infectious processes in post-surgery maintenance, as these are the most aggravating conditions for transplanted organ rejection, besides early detection, diagnosis and treatment of mouth opportunistic manifestations. Every semester, the Hospital’s medical team holds a workshop for qualification of UNIP’s undergraduate course students, apart from taking part in the discussion of these students’ clinical cases that occurred at the hospital, which fosters the preparation of partnership research projects. The Gold Standard Hospital is an extremely relevant reference centre for science. Last year, there were 1,030 transplantations performed in the institution (the largest number for an single institution in the world), with high success rates and minimum rejection level. Several research projects have been developed through this partnership, and courses are taught to the students as part of UNIP’s undergraduate course Continuous Education Program. This course is joined by undergraduate students, those from UR (Undergraduate Research), and from graduation (specialization, Master’s, and PhD Degrees). Research works related to this partnership have been presented in national and international conferences, and an article has been accepted for publication, with three more on the way (ongoing research).
  6. PREMIER HOSPITAL: this rich partnership refers to the exchange of experiences in dental intervention practices and research in patients under palliative care. This hospital has cared for patients in excellent human dignity conditions, most of them elderly with the most varied degrees of immobility owing to their pathologies and/or young people who had accidents (quadriplegic/coma, etc.). The undergraduate students, those from the UR and from the graduation Programs (specialization, Master’s, and PhD Degrees) supervised by Professor Dr Elcio Magdalena Giovani, perform clinical intervention and research. There are three researches in progress.
  7. USP’S MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS INSTITUTE: the Program’s professors keep partnership with professors from the Institute of Mathematics and Statistics, part of USP’s Department of Statistics, aiming at expanding the analyses and optimizing the data obtained through UNIP’s developed studies.
  8. USP’S SCHOOL OF MEDICINE: partnership between faculty members Professor Dr Luciano Lauria Dib and Professor Dr Marcio Z. Casati with the CLINIC OF AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES (Dermatology Subject segment of USP’s College of Medicine). This partnership seeks to produce scientific research projects on vesiculobullous diseases and mouth manifestations, with the participation of our students and Professors. In 2018, the following article was published: Migliorini, Sergio Eduardo, Pecorari, Vanessa Gallego Arias, Casati, Marcio Zaffalon, Santi, Claudia Giuli, Neto, Cyro Festa; Dib, Luciano Lauria (authors). “Oral Manifestations, Gingival Index, and Dental State of Vesiculobullous Diseases”. International Journal of Clinical Medicine. v. 09, p. 408-422, 2018.
  9. DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATICS ON HEALTH FROM THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF SÃO PAULO: partnership established through Professor Dr Cristina Feijó Ortolani, for the development, conception, and design of applications in the Dentistry area. At UNIP, the Research Group ‘Informatics in Dentistry’ was created with the participation of faculty members and master’s and PhD candidates, and RU from both institutions. It is the only Research Group in this area in Brazil. The results of this partnership have been presented in national and international conferences, with six articles already published and three articles submitted in 2018 awaiting publication. Three applications are being developed: one for child mouth health prevention, one for patients with microcephaly, and one for teenage patients during orthodontic treatment.
    Education and Cyberculture is another discipline that is offered at UNIFESP by Professor Dr Cristina Feijó Ortolani to students of both Universities as part of this partnership. She has also participated in examination boards of projects and presentations of master’s degree dissertations and doctorate theses.
  10. UNIVERSITY ESTADUAL PAULISTA JÚLIO DE MESQUITA FILHO - UNESP - SÃO JOSÉ DOS CAMPOS: through Professor PhD. Alberto N. Kojima, faculty member of UNESP’s Department of Dental Materials and Prosthesis, studies have been carried out in the area of Extensometry – Mechanical Assays of Dental Materials, with collaboration of Professor Dr Alfredo Mesquita. This partnership has already generated a project approved before FAPESP, works presented in research conferences, according to the authors’ Lattes Curriculum; three articles in international, multicentre journals, jointly published with Professor Mutlu Ozcan (University of Zurich).
  11. FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF ABC: partnership established by means of Professor Dr Maria Martha Bernardi with the Centre of Cognition and Complex Systems and Graduate course in Biotechnology from the Federal University of ABC for the development of connected to obesity and reproductive aspects-related research. This partnership has allowed the establishment of a Lab of Behaviour and Molecular Biology at UFABC for joint works with UNIP.
  12. THE PHARMACOPOEIA GROUP: through Professor Dr Maria Martha Bernardi and Pharmacopeia Cil, Brazil, Pharmaceutical Company. This partnership seeks to study the effects of ancillary phytotherapeutics on weight loss. This partnership was responsible for two technical reports in 2012: “Weight loss in rats fed hypercaloric food and treated with 9611phytotherapy” and “Weight loss in rats fed with hypercaloric food and treated with phytotherapy at different proportions”. Other researches have also been developed.
  13. COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY TECHNOLOGY – UNIVERSITY OF SÃO PAULO: with the participation of Professor Dr Maria Martha Bernardi, this partnership seeks to develop research projects, supervision, and co-supervision to graduate students in the area of Development Toxicology. Outcomes of this collaboration were works published in prestigious journals.
  14. CENTER OF ENGINEERING, MODELING, AND APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES (CECS) FROM UFABC AND UFPE’S DEPARTMENT OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING: with the participation of Professor Dr Maristela Dutra-Corrêa, this partnership established with Professor Dr Patrícia Aparecida da Ana, from UFABC, and Professor Dr Emery C. C. C. Lins, Assistant Professor – UFPE, both with research in the areas of Optics and Biomedical Images with the use of visible and infrared radiations for pathology diagnosing and biomaterials optical characterization, and diagnosis and therapy of mouth and tooth pathologies. One of the outcomes from this partnership was Selma Regina dos Santos Almeida’s PhD Degree, using photonic images for detecting tooth cavities, completed in 2018.
  15. EMPRESA CONEXÃO SISTEMA DE PRÓTESES LTD.: cooperation project with Professor Dr Luciano Lauria Dib for the development of a new model of extraoral implant for use in maxillofacial rehabilitation. This project counts with the participation of graduate students.
  16. USP’s INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY (IQ-USP) AND USP’s SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY (FO-USP): cooperation project, already completed, between Professor Dr Maristela Dutra-Correa and FO-USP, with Professor Dr Igor Studart Medeiros and at IQ-USP, and Professors Dr Koiti Araki and Dr Sergio H Toma, with UNIP’s Extraction Lab, and with Professor Dr Ivana Barbosa Suffredini, for new dental biomaterials development with nanotechnology (silver nanoparticles). This partnership has already led to several abstracts published in events historical records (around 16) and an article published in an high-impact factor International Magazine with participation of a master’s degree student and an UR student. Works completed: 3 Master’s degrees (Ms Catarina Pires Bezerra, Ms Monica de Abreu Pessoa Rodrigues, and Ms Marina Struncová Fernandes), 1 Final Undergraduation Essay (Ms Alessandra Almeida Bráz Varanda Leite) and 3 Undergraduate Researches (Ms Marina Struncová Fernandes, Ms Alessandra Almeida Bráz Varanda Leite, and Ms Gabrielly Caramel Juvino).
  17. REGIONAL HOSPITAL OF FERRAZ DE VASCONCELOS “Dr. Osiris Florindo Coelho” – part of the State Health Secretariat. In this hospital, patients with special needs on dental treatment are submitted to dental services under general anaesthesia at the Centre of Studies and Service to Special Patients – CEAPE UNIP. With these patients, it to perform outpatient treatment is impossible due to the varied pathologies they and limitations they present. Services at the Hospital of Ferraz of Vasconcelos are carried out by PNE-specialization students and by master’s and PhD students from the Graduate Program, also assisted by undergraduate students.
  18. MARY SPEERS FOUNDATION: Social Inclusion Project for people at risk and vulnerability for residents in the downtown region of São Paulo City; the Program acts on two important pillars: 1. Educational and preventive service to mouth hygiene care on children going to the Foundation’s school, 2. Educational and preventive to buccal health services for the mothers of the same students who attend the Foundation’s school. This project is joined by undergraduate, UR, and graduate students (specialization, Master’s, and PhD Degrees). This partnership’s activities are described in the Social Insertion section.
  19. SÃO PAULO STATE UNIVERSITY “JÚLIO DE MESQUITA FILHO” - UNESP – BOTUCATU CAMPUS: cooperation between Professor PhD Denise Carleto Andia (UNIP) and Professors Willian F Zambuzzi and Rodrigo Augusto da Silva, both from the Bio-Sciences Institute, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UNESP, for joint research development in the area of common interest, related to bone layer epigenetic regulation. This partnership counts on collaboration from students from UNIP’s and UNESP’s Strictu Sensu Graduate Programs.
  20. STATE UNIVERSITY OF CAMPINAS – FOP: Professors who teach Periodontics in the Program keep a partnership with professors from UNICAMP for the development of joint researches, especially projects linked to the areas of Microbiology, Molecular Biology, and Periodontics. There is also collaboration between Professor Dr Denise Carleto Andia (UNIP) and the Periodontics area of FOP/UNICAMP’s Prosthesis and Periodontics Department for development of the project named “Epigenetic regulation of human mesenchymal cells”, from Young Researcher Aid under the supervision of Professor Dr Denise Carleto Andia (FAPESP – 2013/09650-8). This partnership counts on the collaboration from Master’s and UR students from FOP/UNICAMP’s Graduate Program.
  21. IPEN – CNEN/SP: cooperation carried out through Profa. Cintia Helena Coury Saraceni, with Profs. Denise Zezell and Ricardo Samad from the Center for Lasers and Applications – IPEN-CNEN/SP, with the aim of carrying out research with the Femtosecond laser on ceramic structures. The partnership was signed in 2016 and generated two completed PhD and one master's degree research. Doctoral research is underway, scheduled for completion in December 2023.
  22. SÃO PAULO STATE UNIVERSITY “JÚLIO DE MESQUITA FILHO” - UNESP – ARAÇATUBA CAMPUS: partnership settled by faculty Professors of the Periodontics Program’s for the immunohistochemistry analyses of samples coming from Project “Role Of Resveratrol in the Control of Bone Alterations Associated to Osteoporosis: Study on Ovariectomized Rats”, jointly with Professor Dr Edilson Ervolino.
  23. SÃO PAULO STATE UNIVERSITY “JÚLIO DE MESQUITA FILHO” - UNESP – ARARAQUARA CAMPUS: partnership established by faculty Professors of the Periodontics Program’s for MICRO-CT analyses of samples originating from Project “Impact of Resveratrol at Risk Conditions: Evaluation of the Bone Repair and Induced Experimental Periodontitis Processes on Diabetic Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke”, a joint work with Professor Dr Adriana Marcantonio.
  24. PRESBYTERIAN UNIVERSITY MACKENZIE - established with the support of Professor Dr Maria Martha Bernardi, this partnership aims at developing research projects and co-supervision to graduate students in the area of Development Disorders. This collaboration has already brought results and studies have been published in high-impact journals.
  25. UNIVERSITY OF SÃO PAULO’s SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY – RIBEIRÃO PRETO CAMPUS: faculty Professors of the Program keep a partnership with professors from FORP-USP for joint-research development, especially regarding evaluations in computerized micro-tomography for bone repair evaluation. This partnership made it possible to publish the article: (authors) Cirano FR, Pimentel SP, Casati MZ, Corrêa MG, Pino DS, Messora MR, Silva PHF, Ribeiro FV. “Effect of curcumin on bone tissue in the diabetic rat: repair of peri-implant and critical-sized defects”. Int J Oral Maxillofacial Surg. 2018 Nov; 47 (11): 1495-1503. doi: 10.1016 / j.ijom.2018.04.018. Epub 2018 May 29. PubMed PMID: 29857981.
  26. SÃO LEOPOLDO MANDIC SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY: partnership through Professor Dr Marcelo Napimoga, who took part in the histological evaluation of joints of the animals in the following research: (authors) Corrêa MG, Pires PR, Ribeiro FV, Pimentel SP, Cirano FR, Napimoga MH, Casati MZ, Casarin RCV. “Systemic treatment with resveratrol reduces the progression of experimental periodontitis and arthritis in rats”. PLoS One. 2018 Oct 3; 13 (10): e0204414. doi: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0204414. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 30281626; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6169914.
  27. PIRACICABA SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY – UNIVERSITY OF CAMPINAS: partnership established by Professor Dr Renato Casarin wo, along with professors and students from UNIP’s Strictu Sensu Graduate Program, enabled the analysis of the microbiome of patients who smoke and bear dental implants. This partnership has generated the following publication: (authors) Pimentel SP, Fontes M, Ribeiro FV, Corrêa MG, Nishii D, Cirano FR, Casati MZ, Casarin RCV. “Smoking habit modulates peri-implant microbiome: A case-control study”. J Periodontal Res. 2018 Dec; 53 (6): 983-991. doi: 10.1111 / jre.12597. Epub 2018 Sep 26. PubMed PMID: 30259511.
  28. FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL’s SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY: the Program’s professor and students keep research partnership with Professor Dr Alex Haas for research development in the area of peri-implantitis. Out of this partnership, a recent study has been published: (authors) Pimentel SP, Fontes M, Ribeiro FV, Corrêa MG, Nishii D, Cirano FR, Casati MZ, Casarin RCV. “Smoking habit modulates peri-implant microbiome: A case-control study”. J Periodontal Res. 2018 Dec; 53 (6): 983-991. doi: 10.1111 / jre.12597. Epub 2018 Sep 26. PubMed PMID: 30259511.


By means of institutional exchange programs, UNIP’s internationalization process is growing strong, both with the development of joint researches – with students coming from Latin American institutions outside Brazil – and with faculty and student mobility.

Faculty/Student Mobility

The partnerships established in 2014 between Professors Dr Adriano Fonseca de Lima and Dr Flávia Pires Rodrigues, from UNIP, with Professors Dr William Palin from the University of Birmingham and Dr David Watts from the University of Manchester has ongoing and continuous research. One of them was the work of title "Influence of different polymerization initiation systems on the chemical-physical properties of experimental resins", partially funded by CNPq through PIBIC scholarship for our student, Mr Marcos Vinícius Salvador, awarded as the best undergraduate research in the Area of Health Sciences at the XVII Scientific Meeting, the 19th Scientific Initiation Meeting and UNIP’s 4th Technological Initiation Meeting.

Professor Dr. Denise Carleto Andia also participated in this program with the Institute for Biomedical Research (IBR), Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham (UoB), Birmingham, in partnership with Professor. Malgorzata Wiench. Professor. Denise Carleto Andia was in Birmingham from May to July 2015 developing the project: "RG108 demethylating therapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: the impact on DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation."

In 2017, there was also the visit of the PhD student Ms Anna Larsson, supervised by Professor Ulf Nannmark from the University of Gothenburg for experiments related to her project. The student's participation was part of our student mobility actions that resulted from the partnership established by UNIP’s Graduate Program in Dentistry and the University of Gothenburg.

TRAINING COURSE IN CUBA: Since 2015, a partnership has been in force between the UNIP’s Graduate Program and the Latin American Society for Face Rehabilitation and Bucomaxilofacial Prosthesis. Professor Luciano Dib, along with PhD student Mr Rodrigo Salazar Gamarra (Peru), carried out training courses for the rehabilitation of patients with trauma and tumours deformities at the Centro de Prótesis Bucomaxilofacial, Hospital CIMEQ, Havana/Cuba. The lecturer and PhD candidate holds the positions of president and secretary of the Board of Directors of the Company.

INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS: UNIP’s Graduate Program in Dentistry also participates in the internationalization process, receiving students from Latin America. There are three Peruvian students enrolled in the Program. One of them, Mr Rodrigo Salazar, has already presented his master’s dissertation and is now a PhD student. His work, under the supervision of Professor Luciano Dib, has already been published and has a strong social impact, as it aims at the post-surgical prosthetic rehabilitation of cancer patients through a 3D-protocol that eliminates moulding steps and decreases the final prosthesis cost. The work had national and worldwide impact and a series of interviews was carried out with the student and the professor at UNIP.

Two other Peruvian students presented their master’s dissertation in 2017, both in the Prosthesis sub-area, and one of them initiated the PhD graduation, and a new student began her master's degree in 2018.

In compliance with the established goal to increase Program internationalization, in 2017, English language courses started being offered.

Part of the Program’s internationalization process can be characterized by the international partnerships and exchanges mentioned below:

Partnerships and International Exchange

  1. UNIVERSITY OF GOTHENBURG/SWEDEN: the international exchange remains with fellows visits from both Universities. In 2018, with Ms Anna Larsson and Professor Ulf Nannmark, researches were developed in the area of extraoral implantology, with in vivo experiments performed and collected at UNIP School of Dentistry and sent to the University of Gothenburg for microscopic analysis. These experiments generated publications that are now in the final writing phase. The following article was also published as result of this partnership: (authors) De Oliveira FM, Salazar-Gamarra R, Öhman D, Nannmark U, Pecorari V, Dib, LL. “Quality of life assessment of patients utilizing orbital implant-supported prostheses”. Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, v. x, p. x, 2018.
  2. UNIVERSITY OF ZURICH / SWITZERLAND: Through Professor Alfredo Mesquita and Professor Mutlu Özcan from the Department of Dental Biomaterials of the University of Zurich, this partnership involves the exchange of knowledge in the areas of implantology and dental materials, with focus on dental ceramics. This partnership, along with the one with UNESP São José dos Campos, keep on bringing results. Article published in 2018: (authors) Moura RV, Kojima NA, Saraceni CHC, Bassolli L, Balducci I, Özcan M, Mesquita AMM. “Evaluation of the Accuracy of Conventional and Digital Impression Techniques for Implant Restorations”. Journal Of Prosthodontics.
  3. UNIVERSITY OF ZÜRICH AND DEPARTMENT OF MORPHOLOGY AND GENETICS OF THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF SÃO PAULO: Partnership for the development of an application named "Integrated Pain Support" for the diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular dysfunctions., Scientific papers to support the system are under development, as well as a specific electronic medical record for TMJ to be implemented at UNIFESP. The partnership has generated, to date, a published article and a research presentation at an International Conference.
  4. UNIVERSIDAD PERUANA CAYETANO HEREDIA – FACULTAD DE ESTOMATOLOGIA ROBERTO BELTRÃN – Área de medicina y patologia oral y maxillofacial / Área de atención estomatológica de pacientes especiales: for exchange between undergraduate and graduate students concerning experiences in handling patients with special needs and patients with oral manifestations.
  5. UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO: agreement signed for research in the area of Periodontics, especially aiming at the in-depth study regarding the use of Resveratrol as a modulator of the host response to the presence of periodontal disease and during bone repair processes. As results from this partnership, the following articles were published in journals of relevant impact: (authors) Corrêa MG, Absy S, Tenenbaum H, Ribeiro FV, Cirano FR, Casati MZ, Pimentel SP. “Resveratrol attenuates oxidative stress during experimental periodontitis in rats exposed to cigarette smoke inhalation”. J Periodontal Res. 2018 Oct 22. doi: 10.1111/jre.12622. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30346038.
  6. UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM: Partnership signed since 2014 by Professors PhD. Adriano Fonseca de Lima and Flávia Pires Rodrigues for researches related to the evaluation and the development of new resinous compounds, with improvements in both the monomeric part and the initiation systems. The established partnership has been maintained with visits of both professors to the University in England, working along with the Department of Biomaterials, in collaboration with Professors PhD. William M. Palin and Owen Addison, as well as the visit of the mentioned Professors of the University of Birmingham to UNIP. The exchange is financed by both universities through travel funding, which enables the continuous work development, whose result, up to the present moment, consists of two works submitted and still under review, and some works being written in the area of restorative dentistry and dental materials. Professor Denise Carleto Andia, from the area of epigenetic of UNIP’s Strictu Sensu graduate program in Dentistry, also has been working in partnership with Professor PhD. Malgorzata Wiench, researcher of the Department of Epigenetic, Institute of Biological Research, Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, since 2015. The partnership allowed the mobility of Professor Denise Carleto Andia to the University of Birmingham with financial costs borne by her Young Researcher Aid (FAPESP 2013/09650-8). During the internship, Professor Denise investigated the epigenetic regulation in tumour cells of spinal cell cancer. The partnership foresees future visits, depending on new funding of development agencies either from Brazil or from the UK, or in partnership with both countries.
  7. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS - CHICAGO: Exchange with the Department of Craniomaxillofacial Rehabilitation for the development of a project in the area of digital technology for production of facial prostheses. In November 2018, Professor Rosemarie Sealous, specialist in digital technology, visited UNIP again to teach a course at UNIP’s Strictu Sensu graduate program. The performance of our student Mr Rodrigo Salazar Gamarra, from Peru, under the supervision of Professor Luciano Dib, and in partnership with the University of Illinois, resulted in the creation of a method for the creation of facial prostheses through digital technology with significant impact on the international community, with journalistic articles in the Brazilian and worldwide mass media, in addition to the award by received from MIT as a Humanitarian Innovator for Latin America 2018, for researchers under 35 years of age.
  8. UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER – ENGLAND: Partnership established in 2015, through Professor Flávia Pires Rodrigues, which studies resinous materials used in Dentistry, with the support of Professor David Watts. The evaluation of the chemical and physical properties of these materials resulting from modifications in the processes of polymerization initiation was effected for the acquisition of materials with better performance. Some articles resulting from the partnership were published at Dental Materials and Brazilian Oral Research journals, and others are being written for subsequent submission. One of them results from the master’s degree dissertation presented by Ms Karina Verzola, supervised by Professor Adriano Fonseca de Lima.
  9. UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO: In 2016, a partnership was established between Schulich Dentistry, Dep. of Biochemistry, London, Ontario, Canada, with Professor Walter Siqueira (UNIP) and Professor Alfredo Mikail Melo Mesquita. Professor Walter Siqueira worked from UNIP, funded by the institution, in the design of research projects that are in their implementation phase. One of them is of high social impact and concerns the rehabilitation of AIDS patients from the Centre of Special Patient Care, with Professor Elcio Giovani.
  10. EVOLVA (BASEL - SWITZERLAND): Partnership that has made viable the study "Effect of resveratrol on non-surgical periodontal treatment of smokers diagnosed with Chronic Periodontitis. Prospective evaluation of clinical, microbiological, immunological results, and oral neutrophil quantification".
  11. OKAYAMA UNIVERSITY, in Japan: a partnership that favours student mobility of the two institutions in the pursuit of knowledge, mainly focused on the area of imaging. This partnership is held between FOUNIP x FOUSP x Okayama. In October 2018, four students were welcomed from the Okayama Dentistry graduate program in , who took part in the Symposium of Patient Care with Special Needs, organized by Professor Elcio M. Giovani; an event that also counted with the presence of two international speakers.
  12. Reinstatement of the agreement with the National Cancer Institute, NIH, USA, with the signature of the Memorandum of Understanding in 2018.
  13. Establishment of collaboration with the College of Textile and Chemistry Engineering of the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Lima, Peru. As a result of this collaboration with Peru, 7 works have been published, 2 in 2018, 3 in 2017, and 2 in 2016.
  14. LATIN AMERICAN SOCIETY OF BUCOMAXILLOFACIAL REHABILITATION: Exchange between UNIP, Instituto Mais Identidade and the society, under the coordination of Professor Luciano Dib, who is the President of the Educational Committee of the Society, responsible for the management and regulation of courses of professional improvement carried out internationally by the society and which will be delivered at UNIP.
  15. OREMA FOUNDATION – CHILE: This foundation is a charitable entity from Santiago, Chile, which has partnered with the National Hospital of Cancer of Chile, dedicated to the maxillofacial rehabilitation of oncologic patients. The partnership involving Instituto Mais Identidade, UNIP and OREMA Foundation will allow the development and enhancement of digital technologies with the purpose of surgery planning and execution, and rehabilitation prosthetics. There will be professional exchanges, with courses and internships both in Brazil and in Chile.